A childhood passion for history fueled this collector’s interest in rare, unique, and historic toy soldiers. Charles Stewart, a sixth-generation Kentuckian, was raised on the site of the old Kentucky Military Institute, so it’s no surprise that history in miniature became his passion. In 2010, Mr. Stewart began donating his toy soldiers and miniatures to the Frazier. Today, that collection has grow into the finest, most comprehensive collection of toy soldiers in the world. Enjoy this selection of history in miniature.
2nd floor, Marshall Center, #7: Unknown, France, French Revolution Paper Dolls
2nd floor, Marshall Center, #32: Milton Bradley, United States, Toyland Soldiers with Drum Corps, c. 1938
2nd floor, Marshall Center, #37: McLoughlin Bros, United States, Soldiers on Parade
Battle of San Juan Hill Part of the Spanish-American War
On July 1, 1898 a force made up of Rough Riders, Buffalo Soldiers and other U.S. Army regiments seized two crucial hills from the Spanish in the San Juan heights east of Santiago, Cuba. Swivel mountings on their Gatling guns allowed the artillerists to sweep through the Spanish fronts with deadly efficiency. Although the United States would suffer five times more casualties than Spain, the resulting victory would boost the reputation of soon-to-be U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt and the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, a.k.a. the Rough Riders.
2nd floor, Marshall Center, #44: Heyde, Germany, Large Mounted Arab Figure
2nd floor, Marshall Center, #61: Heyde, Germany, Spanish Knights, 48 mm
Battle of Cajamarca Part of the Spanish Conquest of Peru
On November 16, 1532 the Inca Emperor Atahualpa and his entourage met with the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro at a city plaza in the Andes. When Atahualpa threatened the Spaniards, Pizarro's hidden army of 170 soldiers ambushed the unarmed Incas, slaughtering 2,000 and capturing Atahualpa. Soon the Spanish would conquer the Incas, colonize their land and amass a fortune by mining and exporting from the Americas what would amount to 80% of all the silver on the global market.
2nd floor, Marshall Center, #69: Spenkuch, Germany, Roman Infantry, 48 mm
Battle of Milvian Bridge Part of the Civil Wars of the Tetrarchy
On October 28, 312 Constantine I defeated Maxentius in battle at the Ponte Milvio, a stone bridge over the Tiber in northern Rome. The night before Constantine had witnessed a cross sign appear in the sky with the words, "By this sign, you shall conquer"; in response he ordered his soldiers to paint crosses on their shields. Constantine would become the sole emperor of Rome and promote Christianity throughout the land. By 380 it would be the official religion of the Roman Empire.
2nd floor, Marshall Center, #88: Heyde, Germany, Mexican-American War, pre-WWI
2nd floor, Marshall Center, #93: Heyde, Germany, Camp Scene
Bad Axe Massacre Part of the Black Hawk War
On August 1-2, 1832 a group of 400-500 Sauk and Fox Indians displaced from their homeland in Illinois by lead miners and squatter-settlers was attacked by a force of 1,300 U.S. Army regulars and militia on the banks of the Mississippi River in modern-day Wisconsin. Although the war chief Black Hawk waved a white flag to indicate his surrender, about 150 Indian men, women and children were shot dead or drowned while swimming to safety. The remaining Sauks would be forcibly relocated to a reservation called Sac and Fox.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, German Figures, #5: Heinrichsen, Germany, Napoleonic War Flats
2nd floor, Main Gallery, German Figures, #5: Heinrichsen, Germany, Napoleonic War Flats
Battle of Austerlitz Part of the Napoleonic Wars
On December 2, 1805 Napoleon's Grand Armée upset the Russian and Austrian army commanded by Tsar Alexander I in battle near the town of Austerlitz in present-day Czechia, thus putting an end to the Holy Roman Empire. Napoleon's army had made extensive use of "cantinières," or women attached to regiments as cafeteria-keepers. At Austerlitz the cantinières of the 4th Infantry and 26th Light Infantry "vied with each other to distribute brandy to the soldiers under fire, responding to those who offered money, "You can pay me tomorrow!""
2nd floor, Main Gallery, German Figures, #31: Noris, Germany, Boer Infantry, c. 1910
2nd floor, Main Gallery, German Figures, #34: Elastolin, Germany, German Staff Car, 1930s
2nd floor, Main Gallery, German Figures, #36: Lineol, Germany, French Algerian Soldier
Battle of Wörth Part of the Franco-Prussian War
On August 6, 1870 a coalition army from Prussia, Baden, Bavaria and Württemberg commanded by Crown Prince Frederick defeated the French near a wooded village in Alsace. The French lost handily, bringing half as many guns and rifles and incurring twice as many casualties as the Prussians. The 2nd Algerian Tirailleur Regiment, for example, suffered a 93% casualty rate. "We will all die here, if need be," said its commanding officer Colonel Pierre Suzzoni. Hours later he was killed by a shell splinter.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, German Figures, #37: Heyde, Germany, American Indians
2nd floor, Main Gallery, German Figures, #42: Heyde, Germany, Military Bicycle Troops
2nd floor, Main Gallery, German Figures, #47: Heyde, Germany, United States 22nd Regiment Line Infantry, c. 1880
Battle of Wolf Mountain Part of the Great Sioux War of 1876
On January 8, 1877 Lakota and Cheyenne warriors led by Crazy Horse and Two Moon launched an attack on U.S. Army forces in the snow-covered Tongue River Valley in Montana Territory. The conflict stemmed from U.S. settlers' desire to obtain gold that had been discovered in the Black Hills — territory guaranteed to the Lakota by the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie. Private Bernard McCann of Company F 22nd Infantry would die of his wounds on the return march and be posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, German Figures, #57
Battle of Vučji Do Part of the Montenegrin-Ottoman War
On July 18, 1876 allied Montenegrin and Herzegovinian rebel battalions defeated the Ottoman Army at Vučji Do (Serbian for "Valley of Wolves") in western Montenegro. The title of the poem "Luka Filipov," translated from Serbian into English by the famous inventor Nikola Tesla, refers to the soldier who captured the Ottoman Commander Osman Pasha during this battle and delivered him to the king. By winning the war in 1878 Montenegro would gain statehood and double its territory.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, German Figures, #71: Heyde, Germany, Triumph of Germanicus
Triumph of Germanicus Part of the Germanic Wars
On May 26, 17 the returning Roman general Germanicus celebrated his successful two-year campaign of military conquests over Germanic tribes with a triumphal chariot ride through Rome. Commemorative coins issued by his son Caligula would feature an image of Germanicus driving the chariot along with the slogan "Standards Recovered. Germans Defeated." Afterwards Germanicus would sail to Greece, win a chariot race at the Olympics and then reorganize provinces in Asia Minor.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, German Figures, #73: Heyde, Germany, Mounted Arabs Charging, 60 mm, 1920s
2nd floor, Main Gallery, German Figures, #75: Heyde, Germany, Richard the Lionheart, c. 1920
Battle of Arsuf Part of the Third Crusade
On September 7, 1191 Richard the Lionheart and his knights from England, France and Jerusalem, although outnumbered two to one, defeated the army of horse archers and javelineers commanded by Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, in Arsuf, Levant. When two of the Crusaders cried out "St. George!" the rest of the Hospitaller knights and cavalrymen broke rank en masse, charging at the Saracens. As a result the coastal area of central Palestine would be returned to Christian control.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #1: Vertunni, France, Carolingian Empire, Charlemagne, 20th c.
Coronation of Charlemagne Part of the Carolingian Empire
On December 25, 800, as he knelt at the altar in prayer during Christmas mass at the Basilica of St. Peter in Rome, Charlemagne was crowned "Imperator Romanorum," or “Holy Roman Emperor,” by Pope Leo III. Thus began the Carolingian Empire, which under Charlemagne would be marked by near-constant warfare. Equipped with spears, shields and helmets, and staffed with troops from monasteries and aristocratic families, Charlemagne's army would wage many raids and skirmishes.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #1: Vertunni, France, Carolingian Empire, Clovis, 20th c.
Battle of Vouillé Part of the Battles of Clovis I
In the spring of 507 Clovis I led his infantry of Frankish soldiers through the northern borderlands of Visigothic territory and across the flooding Vienne River into the countryside south of Vouillé. Wielding axes and barbed lances, the Franks thus engaged in hand-to-hand combat with the horseback-riding Visigoths. Clovis himself slew King Alaric II, at which point the Visigoths retreated in defeat. For his service Clovis would be made an honorary consul and patrician by the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #3: Vertunni, France, Roman Empire, Julius Caesar, 20th c.
Battle of Thapsus Part of Caesar's Civil War
On April 6, 46 BCE the Roman dictator Julius Caesar suffered an epileptic seizure during battle against the Optimates led by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Scipio in modern-day Tunisia. The Caesarians nevertheless won the battle, out-killing their Republican enemies by a factor of nearly ten to one and seizing 50,000 sesterces (coins) as war reparations. Thapsus would mark both the end of resistance to Caesar in Africa and the last large-scale use of war elephants in the West.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #3: Vertunni, France, Roman Empire, Vercingetorix, 20th c.
Siege of Alesia Part of the Gallic Wars
In September 52 BCE a confederation of Gallic tribes united under the Celtic king and chieftain Vercingetorix was defeated by Julius Caesar's warriors during the Roman invasion of Alesia, a fortified, hilltop settlement in what would become Burgundy, France. As a result the Gauls would lose their independence in both France and Belgium. After surrendering and spending five years in prison Vercingetorix would be paraded through the streets of Rome and executed by strangulation.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #4: Vertunni, France, Capetiens, Louis VII, 20th c.
Battle of the Meander Part of the Second Crusade
In December 1147 King Louis VII and his army of French crusaders was marching through the treacherous valley of the Meander River to the port of Adalia in southwestern Turkey en route to Jerusalem when they were ambushed by the Seljuks of Rûm, a Sunni Muslim army that had vanquished German crusaders in Anatolia that October. Although the mountain crags and sloping terrain allowed the Seljuks to alternate between successful lightning raids and quick retreats on horseback, the French ultimately won the battle.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #4: Vertunni, France, Capetiens, Isabella Hainault, 20th c.
Penitence of Isabella Hainault Part of the House of Flanders
In March 1184, when her husband Philip II convened a council at Sens to announce his intention to repudiate her, Isabella Hainault, Queen of France and ruling Countess of Artois de jure, dressed in the robes of a penitent beggar and walked barefoot through the streets and churches asking for sympathy. The townspeople became so angered that they formed a mob and shouted loud enough to be heard inside the palace. Philip declined to repudiate her, fearing he would lose the county of Artois.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #4: Vertunni, France, Capetiens, Philip II Augustus, 20th c.
Siege of Acre Part of the Third Crusade
On April 20, 1191 King Philip II sailed into the port of Acre on the Gulf of Haifa with a Genoese fleet to help Christian crusaders put down the Muslim incursion led by Saladin, Sultan of the Ayyubid dynasty. After three months of launching offensives with trebuchets and ballistae, King Philip returned to France, leaving Richard the Lionheart in charge. Saladin's last garrison surrendered on July 12, prompting crusaders to enter Acre and raise the banners of Austria, England, France and Jerusalem.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #4: Vertunni, France, Capetiens, Jeanne de Navarre, 20th c.
Barisien Invasion of Champagne Part of the Franco-Flemish War
In June 1297 Henry III, Count of Bar, invaded Champagne, a tactical decision made in tandem with the Count of Flanders. In response Joan I, Queen of Navarre and Countess of Champagne, raised an army, arrested the Count and personally escorted him to prison in Paris. Having never visited the Kingdom of Navarre, Joan had been more active in Champagne, where she performed all the duties of a ruling vassal. Flanders would lose the war against France in 1305, but retain its independence.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #5: Vertunni, France, Valois Orleons, Mercenary (Version 1), 20th c.
Battle of Mello Part of the Jacquerie of 1358
In the spring of 1358 the Peasant Jacquerie of France, angry at the gentry for taxing them too much and leaving them exposed to English raiders, led a violent rebellion in the streets. On June 10 a small army of English mercenaries and routiers was dispatched by the king to quash the rebellion. The peasant leader was invited to discuss a peace treaty, but upon arriving was shackled, tortured and killed by the nobles. The nobles easily defeated the now-leaderless rebel army and set fire to the burghers’ suburbs.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #6: Vertunni, France, Valois, Charles VI, 20th c.
Psychotic Episode of Charles VI Part of the House of Valois
On a hot August morning in 1392 a leper in rags accosted King Charles the Beloved in the forest near Le Mans, grabbing his horse's bridle and yelling, “Ride no further, noble king! Turn back! You are betrayed!” Later that afternoon, when a page dropped the king’s lance on a steel helmet, the clanging sound triggered an episode of psychosis in the king, who proceeded to slay four of his own knights and almost killed his own brother, Louis of Orléans. Charles would go on to have delusions that he was made of glass.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #6: Vertunni, France, Valois, John the Fearless, 20th c.
Murder of John the Fearless Part of the Armagnac-Burgundian Civil War
On September 10, 1419, during the fighting between the Armagnacs and Burgundians of the Hundred Years’ War, John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, arranged a peaceful parley with Charles the Victorious, Dauphin of France, on the Bridge of Montereau. John knelt to Charles in respect, but as he rose to stand he placed his hand on the hilt of his épée for support. A member of the Dauphin's entourage took this as a sign of disrespect and killed John with an axe.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #6: Vertunni, France, Valois, Philip the Good, 20th c.
Founding of the Order of the Golden Fleece Part of the House of Valois-Burgundy
On January 10, 1430 Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, established the Order of the Golden Fleece to celebrate the expansion of his kingdom from Flanders to Switzerland brought on by his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabella. The inaugural ceremony in Bruges featured a performance by the French jester and dwarf Madame d’Or. The Order was based on the Knights of the Round Table and the Greek myth of Jason.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #7: MIM, Belgium, Ancient Rome, Signifier, 66
Caesar's Invasion of Britain Part of the Gallic Wars
In late August 55 BCE Julius Caesar invaded the southern tip of Britain by sea. His fleet anchored in Pegwell Bay at low tide, forcing the Romans to wade through deep water 600 feet to the shore while a barrage of missiles rained down on them. The signifier for the 10th legion had to rally the reluctant troops, shouting, “Leap, fellow soldiers, unless you wish to betray your eagle to the enemy. I, for my part, will perform my duty to the republic and to my general.” Caesar would set up a client kingdom in Britain with his ally Mandubracius on the throne.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #9: Vertunni, France, Valois Angouleme, Catherine de Medici, 20th c.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre Part of the French Wars of Religion
On August 23, 1572 a wave of anti-Huguenot (Protestant) violence erupted in the Catholic city of Paris. On August 18 King Charles IX's sister Margaret had married the Huguenot Henry III of Navarre, and many Huguenots were in town for the wedding. On August 22 Huguenot Admiral Gaspard de Coligny survived an assassination attempt that may have been arranged by Catherine de Medici, the king's mother. This sparked a wave of anti-Huguenot mob violence that lasted weeks and claimed over 10,000 lives.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #29: Minikin, Japan, Hannibal War Elephant, 1950
Battle of the Rhône Crossing Part of the Second Punic War
In late September 218 BCE Hannibal Barca led an army of 40,000 Carthaginians into battle with a Gallic tribe to cross the Rhône River en route to Italy. While most of the Carthaginian warriors crossed the river in boats, rafts and canoes, a majority of the 37 elephants in their caravan reputedly fell into the river and swam across. By winter Hannibal’s army would reach Po Plain where it would ambush the Romans on the banks of the Trebbia, thus beginning the Second Punic War.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #31: Barclay, United States, American Dimestore Figures, 1935-1951
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #31: Barclay, United States, U.S. Aviator and Ammo Carrier, 1935-1951
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #36: Harold Pestana, Nile River Boat Flotilla, 1990
Battle of Omdurman Part of the Mahdist War
On September 1, 1898 a flotilla of twelve British Royal Navy gunboats carrying Howitzers and Maxim machine guns and staffed by British, Egyptian and Sudanese service personnel sailed down the Nile River and shelled the city of Omdurman, Sudan. The next day General Herbert Kitchener’s men slaughtered 12,000 Mahdist warriors, an army commanded by the Mahdi Abdullah al-Taashi. A young Winston Churchill, armed with a Mauser C96 automatic pistol, was among the British 21st Lancers present.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #50: Courtenay, United Kingdom, Thierry d'Aufay le Hardi
Battle of Cassel Part of the Peasant Revolt in Flanders
On August 23, 1328 French knights commanded by King Philip VI violently quashed a rebellion in Cassel, France that peasant-farmers fed up with over-taxation and pro-France policies had started five years earlier. In 1325 the rebels' leader Nicolaas Zannekin had seized the town of Kortrijk and successfully captured Louis I, Count of Flanders; however King Philip was able to negotiate the Count's release by that Christmas. Over 3,000 Flemish peasants were killed or wounded.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #50: Courtenay, United Kingdom, Sir Robert Dacre
Battle of Solway Moss Part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars
On November 24, 1542 Robert, Lord Maxwell and his army of 15,000 Scots marched east into England where 3,000 Englishmen trapped them between the River Esk and a peat bog. James V, King of Scotland, had refused his uncle’s order to break from the Roman Catholic church; in response his uncle, King Henry VIII, invaded Scotland, prompting James to retaliate. Some 1,200 Scots were taken prisoner, and dozens drowned in the marshes. Robert Dacre was a Privy Councillor and Master of Requests to King Henry.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #50: Courtenay, United Kingdom, Medieval Glaiveman
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #50: Courtenay, United Kingdom, John, Count of Saarbrucken
Battle of Brignais Part of the Hundred Years’ War
On April 6, 1362 the Great Company, a roving band of plundering “routiers,” or mercenaries, besieged the small castle of Brignais, capturing one thousand soldiers of the French royal army, including such top commanders as the counts of Tancarville and Saarbrücken. This humiliating defeat would quickly spread panic throughout eastern France; however, the French Crown would use this lesson as an opportunity to reform its military, levy new taxes and raise a salaried standing army.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #50: Courtenay, United Kingdom, Sir John de Lisle
Siege of Calais Part of the Hundred Years' War
On September 4, 1346 Edward III and his army launched an all-out assault on Calais, France. Sir John de Lisle, an English baron, was present. Sand and marshes made Calais all but inaccessible; however, after eleven months of vanishing food supplies, the French surrendered on August 1. Edward’s wife Queen Philippa would persuade him to pardon six Calaisiens he had sentenced to death, warning of a bad omen for their unborn child. Calais would remain under English control for another two centuries.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #50: Courtenay, United Kingdom, King Jean II, 1930-1960
Minting of the Franc Part of the Hundred Years' War
On December 5, 1360, after years in English custody following his capture at the Battle of Poitiers, King John II, having been returned to France because his son Charles had signed the Treaty of Brétigny, created the franc in order to stabilize currency throughout the kingdom. The first franc was a 24-karat gold coin weighing 3.87 grams and featuring combat imagery. Issued from 1360 until 1641, the coins’ inscription read "Johannes Dei Gratia Francorum Rex," or "Jean, By the Grace of God, King of the French."
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #50: Courtenay, United Kingdom, Duke of Athens
Battle of Halmyros Part of the Frankokratia
On March 15, 1311 a small force of mercenary foot soldiers and crossbowmen from the Catalan Company vanquished a feudal army of 700 Frankish knights on a swampy plain in Thessaly. Gautier V of Brienne, Duke of Athens, had hired the Catalans to rid Athens of all his enemies; however, afterwards he refused to pay them the agreed-upon amount. They had plowed and flooded the battlefield, so when Gautier charged his horse collapsed and he was slain. Athens would stay in Catalan hands until 1388.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #54: Courtenay, United Kingdom, Sir John de Clinton defeating Duke of Bourbon
Battle of Poitiers Part of the Hundred Years' War
On September 9, 1356 King John II, his son and many other prominent French nobles were captured by an army of English, Welsh, Breton and Gascon troops in a major battle near Poitiers, France. Among the English nobles opposing them were Edward the Black Prince and Sir John de Clinton. Poitiers would mark a turning point in the Edwardian Phase of the Hundred Years' War and significantly injure the prestige of the French aristocracy. Peter I, Duke of Bourbon, was one of the 2,500 Frenchmen killed.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #54: Courtenay, United Kingdom, Henry VIII
First Siege of Boulogne Part of the Italian Wars
On July 19, 1544 an English force commanded by the Duke of Suffolk laid siege to Boulogne, a town on the French coast of the English Channel. King Henry VIII of England, who was angry with France for aiding his enemy Scotland, arrived weeks into the siege. To bypass artillery fire the English dug tunnels into the castle that was occupied by the last French garrison, and the French surrendered on September 13. The Dauphin and his troops would nearly recapture Boulogne in October, but fail by prematurely turning to looting.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #54: Courtenay, United Kingdom, Wives of Henry VIII
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #54: Courtenay, United Kingdom, Queen Nefertiti
Coronation of Nefertiti Part of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt
Around 1353 BCE Nefertiti married the Pharaoh of Egypt Akhenaten, thus becoming the Great Royal Wife and Queen of Egypt. Together they would bring peace and prosperity to the kingdom, and usher in a new sun-based religion called Atenism. Nefertiti would be depicted in artworks as equal in stature to a king — smiting her enemies, riding a chariot and worshipping the sun-disc as a Pharaoh would. After Akhenaten’s death she would likely assume the kingship under the name Pharaoh Neferneferuaten.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #55: Courtenay, United Kingdom, King of Bohemia at Battle of Crécy
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #55: Courtenay, United Kingdom, Battle of Crécy
Battle of Crécy Part of the Hundred Years' War
On August 26, 1346 an army of English, Welsh and allied mercenary troops led by Edward III of England attacked an army of French, Genoese and Majorcan troops in Crécy-en-Ponthieu, France. With the aid of the longbow, the ribauldequin and other ranged weapons the English peasants handily defeated the French nobles, who outnumbered them two to one. Crécy signaled the rise of the longbow in Western warfare and secured England's ability to take Calais, France the following year.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #56: Rose Miniatures, United Kingdom, Egyptian Chariot, 1950s
Battle of Kadesh Part of the Second Syrian Campaign of Ramesses II
In late May 1274 BCE a Hittite army led by King Muwatalli crossed the Orontes River and ambushed Pharaoh Ramesses II and his Egyptian army in what would be the largest chariot battle in recorded history. Counterattacks by the Ptah division and Ne’arin mercenaries drove the plundering invaders back toward the river bank. Once trapped the last remaining Hittites abandoned their chariots and swam "as fast as crocodiles" back to base.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #58: Courtenay, United Kingdom, Gui VI Sieur de la Trémoille
Crusade of Nicopolis Part of the Ottoman Wars in Europe
On September 25, 1396 Ottoman Turks routed an army of allied Hungarian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Wallachian, French, English, Burgundian and German crusaders at the Battle of Nicopolis, thereby putting an end to the Second Bulgarian Empire. The Burgundian envoy Gui VI Sieur de la Trémoille and a few other wealthy nobles were taken prisoner and forced to stand beside the sultan and watch while hundreds of their peers got executed.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #58: Courtenay, United Kingdom, Defending the Banner
2nd floor, Main Gallery, Various Makers, #61: Under Two Flags, United Kingdom, British Man-of-War's Boat
2nd floor, Main Gallery, W. Britain Figures, #4: W. Britain, United Kingdom, French Zouaves, #142, 1905
2nd floor, Main Gallery, W. Britain Figures, #44: W. Britain, United Kingdom, Svea Lifeguards in Ceremonial Dress, #2035, 1949
Battle of Svensksund Part of the Russo-Swedish War of 1788-90
On July 9, 1790 a Russian coastal fleet unsuccessfully attacked Swedish armed forces in the largest battle ever fought in the Baltic Sea. Two years earlier King Gustav III of Sweden had set out to regain territory in Finland that Russia had conquered in the 1740s. By the morning of July 10 Russia had lost 1,400 men as well as 10 archipelago frigates and xebecs, nine schooners, 16 galleys, four gun prams and floating batteries, seven bomb vessels and five gun sloops.
2nd floor, Main Gallery, French Figures, #8: CBG Mignot, France, American Army Maneuvers, Camp Infantry and Cavalry, #761, 1950s-1960s
2nd floor, Main Gallery, French Figures, #23: Mignot, France, Barnyard Display, 1930
2nd floor, German Gallery, French Figures, #1: MIM, Belgium, Dutch Grenadiers, c. 1955-1960
Battle of Krasnoi Part of Napoleon's invasion of Russia
On November 17, 1812 the Dutch Grenadiers, a regiment of the French Imperial Guard, suffered massive casualties during skirmishes outside of Uvarovo, Russia. A line of the Grenadiers had seized a strategic position on high ground near the village, hoping to rescue some trapped and beleaguered voltigeurs. But Russian artillery batteries swiftly answered, mowing down the Grenadiers with a barrage of grapeshot and other cannon fire. Only 61 survived.
2nd floor, German Gallery, German Figures, #35: Heinrichsen, Germany, Battle of Kulikovo of 1380
Battle of Kulikovo Part of the Mongol Yoke
On September 8, 1380 a hundred thousand Tatar-Mongols from the Golden Horde commanded by Mamai were defeated at Kulikovo Field in Tula Oblast by Russian armies commanded by Prince Dmitri of Moscow, signaling the coming decline of Mongol influence in the region. Although Russian vassalage to the Golden Horde would not officially end until the Great Stand on the Ugra River of 1480, the battle at Kulikovo would signal the rise of Muscovite influence across the region over the following century.
2nd floor, German Gallery, Heyde Figures, #19: Heyde, Germany, Large Indians
2nd floor, German Gallery, Heyde Figures, #26: Heyde, Germany, Wild West Set, 60 mm
2nd floor, German Gallery, Heyde Figures, #26: Heyde, Germany, Wild West Set, 60 mm
Battle of White Bird Canyon Part of the Nez Perce War
On June 17, 1877 Nez Perce warriors led by Ollokot and White Bird vanquished a force of two U.S. 1st Cavalry Regiment companies at a canyon near the Salmon River in Idaho Territory. Afterward the victors scooped dozens of carbines and pistols and hundreds of rounds of ammunition off the battlefield. The conflict stemmed from the refusal of several Nez Perce and Palus bands to relinquish their treaty-protected ancestral lands in the Pacific Northwest to settlers and prospectors.
2nd floor, Events As They Happened, World War II: King & Country, Hong Kong, 20th & 21st c.
Liberation of Paris Part of World War II
On August 25, 1944, some twenty hours after the first squadron of Allied tanks had penetrated Nazi-occupied Paris, the garrison commander, having defied Hitler’s orders to destroy the city, formally surrendered it to de Gaulle’s provisional government, thus ending Germany’s four-year reign over the French capital. Already the Eiffel Tower, whose demolition had been plotted just two days earlier (Nazi sappers had scouted the tower’s supports, looking for places to plant explosives), was flying a tricolor flag.
2nd floor, German Gallery, Heyde Figures, #27: Heyde, Germany, Arab Camel Corps
Battle of Aqaba Part of World War I
In May 1917 Arab rebels led by the Bedouin warrior Auda Abu Tayi and T.E. Lawrence, a.k.a. Lawrence of Arabia, crossed the Nefud Desert on camels, suffering through blistering heat and snake and scorpion bites. On July 6 they seized the Red Sea port of Aqaba in Jordan, dealing a heavy blow to the Ottoman Empire. Afterwards Lawrence rode to Cairo to meet General Edmund Allenby, who promised to pay, arm, and supply the Arab allies with warships and more. Their loss at Aqaba virtually isolated the Turkish forces in what is now Medina, Saudi Arabia.